Ozone Effects on Specific Bacteria, Viruses and Molds

Ozone Effects on Specific Bacteria, Viruses and Molds

Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid cell membrane. Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria.

Viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules. Unlike bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. They transform the protein of the host cell into proteins of their own. Ozone destroys most viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid core, resulting in damage of the viral RNA. At higher concentrations, ozone destroys the capsid, or exterior protein shell, by oxidation, so the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) structures of the microorganism are affected.

Aspergillus Niger (Black Mount)Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/I
Bacillus BacteriaDestroyed by 0.2 m/I within 30 seconds
Bacillus Anthracis (causes anthrax in sheep, cattle and pigs. Also a human pathogen)Ozone susceptible
Bacillus cereus99% destruction after 5-min at 0.12 mg/l in water
B. cereus (spores)99% destruction after 5-min at 2.3 mg/l in water
Bacillus subtilis90% reduction at 0.10-ppm for 33 minutes
Bacteriophage f299.99% destruction at 0.41 mg/l for 10-seconds in water
Botrytis cinerea3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes
Candida BacteriaOzone susceptible
Clavibacter michiganense99.99% destruction at 1.1 mg/l for 5 minutes
Cladosporium90% reduction at 0.10-ppm for 12.1 minutes
Clostridium BacteriaOzone susceptible
Clostridium Botulinum Spores. Its toxin paralyzes the central nerve system, being a poison multiplying in food and meals.0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold value
Coxsackie Virus A995% destruction at 0.035 mg/l for 10-seconds in water
Coxsackie Virus B599.99% destruction at 0.4 mg/l for 2.5-minutes in sludge effluent
Diphtheria PathogenDestroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l
Eberth Bacillus (Typhus abdomanalis). Spreads typically by aqueous infection and causes typhoid.Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l
Echo Virus 29: The virus most sensitive to ozone.After a contact time of 1 minute at 1 mg/l of ozone, 99.999% killed.
Enteric virus95% destruction at 4.1 mg/l for 29 minutes in raw wastewater
Escherichia Coli Bacteria (from feces)Destroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds in air
E-coli (in clean water)99.99% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes
E-coli (in wastewater)99.9% destruction at 2.2 mg/l for 19 minutes
Encephalomyocarditis VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l.
Endamoebic Cysts BacteriaOzone susceptible
Enterovirus VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici1.1 mg/l for 10 minutes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonogea99.99 % destruction at 1.1 mg/l for 20 minutes
GDVII VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l.
Hepatitis A virus99.5% reduction at 0.25 mg/l for 2-seconds in a phosphate buffer
Herpes VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds wit 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l.
Influenza Virus0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold value
Klebs-Loffler BacillusDestroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l
Legionella pneumophila99.99% destruction at 0.32 mg/l for 20 minutes in distilled water
Luminescent Basidiomycetes (species having no melanin pigment).Destroyed in 10 minutes at 100-ppm
Mucor piriformis3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes
Mycobacterium avium99.9% with a CT value of 0.17 in water (scientifically reviewed document)
Mycobacterium foruitum90% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in water
Penicillium BacteriaOzone susceptible
Phytophthora parasitica3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes
Poliomyelitis Virus99.99% kill with 0.3 to 0.4 mg/l in 3-4 minutes
Poliovirus type 199.5% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in water
Proteus BacteriaVery susceptible
Pseudomonas BacteriaVery susceptible
Rhabdovirus virusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
Salmonella BacteriaVery susceptible
Salmonella typhimurium99.99% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.67 minutes in water
Schistosoma BacteriaVery susceptible
Staph epidermidis90% reduction at 0.1-ppm for 1.7 min
StaphylococciDestroyed by 1.5 to 2.0 mg/l
Stomatitis VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
Streptococcus BacteriaDestroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds
Verticillium dahliae99.99 % destruction at 1.1 mg/l for 20 minutes
Vesicular VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
Virbrio Cholera BacteriaVery susceptible
Vicia Faba progenyOzone causes chromosome aberration and its effect is twice that observed by the action of X-rays

The effect of ozone below a certain critical concentration value is small or zero. Above this level all pathogens are eventually destroyed. This effect is called an “all-or-none response” and the critical level is called the “threshold value.”

Nanolife O3 Benefits


  • Strongest disinfectant available
  • Strongest oxidizing agent available
  • Is environmentally friendly
  • Adds no chemicals (no chemical storage)
  • Unstable – Leaves no residual (only oxygen)
  • Allows ozone-advanced oxidation OH-
  • Can lower overall operating costs


  • Unstable – must produce as needed
  • Gas-liquid contacting equipment is required
  • Generation/contacting can be complex, difficult to control
  • Impurities can form undesired by-products
  • System must be designed with personnel safety in mind

Ozone (o3)

Our High Voltage, High Frequency Corona Discharge enables us to achieve High Ozone Concentration of 8 – 12% by weight. Higher the concentration, better the dissolved ozone in water and lower the oxygen feed gas requirement. Built on rich sensitivites and creativity, continuous improvement and innovation is our strength and we will continue to offer products and services that bring satisfaction and evoke inspiration that exceeds the expectations of our customers.


Ozone is a Natural gas

Ozone is an unstable gas and it is made of just one thing oxygen, it has very short life, which means it reacts and disappears rapidly. Any pathogen or contaminant that can be disinfected, altered or removed via an oxidation process will be affected by ozone. It is the strongest of all molecules available for disinfection in water treatment & is second only to elemental fluorine in oxidizing power. Ozone gas produced by ozone generator, which oxidants and disinfectant for air and water treatment. At Faraday Ozone, we are focusing our efforts on various applications and markets in which we can make significant impacts.

Why Ozone?

Ozone oxidation is the most excellent and environment friendly to disinfects the water and air. It works effectively against bacteria, viruses compared to chlorine. In addition, oxidizing properties can also reduce the concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur and reduce or eliminate taste and odour problems.

Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur in the water to form insoluble metal oxides or elemental sulfur. These insoluble particles are then removed by post-filtration. Organic particles and chemicals will be eliminated through either coagulation or chemical oxidation. Ozone is unstable and it will degrade over a time frame ranging from a few seconds to 30 minutes. The rate of degradation is a function of water chemistry, pH and water temperature.


Oxygen – Ozone Cycle

Ozone is fundamentally made up by oxygen. When an oxygen molecule (O2) is exposed to electric high voltage (or UV-light in the stratosphere), the oxygen molecule (O2) is split into two oxygen atoms (O1). The resulting oxygen atom (O1) to connects with oxygen molecules (O2) and ozone (O3) is formed. Ozone then reacts with other substances and the single oxygen atom (O1) disconnects from the ozone molecule (O3), which then again turns into an oxygen molecule.

The ozone is injected into the water or air stream, where it inactivates contaminants by actually rupturing the organism call wall. At the heart of a corona discharge ozone system is the dielectric. The electrical charge is diffused over this dielectric surface, creating an electrical surface, creating an electrical field or “Corona”.


Ozone Benefits

Ozone can be used in many applications and it is generated on site from oxygen, which eliminates the need to haul chemicals or other dangerous products. In many applications ozone saves money, environment & time. Ozone is much healthier & safer to use than harsh caustic chemicals & it does an excellent job. There are many applications where thermo oxidation is used to disinfect or clean. Ozone can do the same job as thermo oxidation, but with the advantage of working in cold environments, this provides savings in energy & money.

  • Ozone is 51% more powerful on bacterial cell walls than chlorine
  • Ozone kills bacteria 3100 times faster than chlorine
  • Ozone is the most powerful broad spectrum microbiological control agent available
  • Ozone eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
  • Ozone virtually eliminates all chemical usage
  • Ozone is chemical-free; it produces NO toxic by-products
  • Ozone has full FDA-approval for direct-food contact application
  • Ozone is clean and environment-friendly, its only by-product is oxygen
  • Ozone is extremely effective as a disinfectant at relatively low concentrations
  • Ozone is generated on site eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of hazardous materials
  • Ozone is very inexpensive to produce and has an unlimited supply
  • Ozone is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
  • Ozone extends the shelf life of food products
  • Ozone permits recycling of wastewater
  • Ozone reduces Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Organisms killed by Ozone

One benefit is the variety of microbes ozone can kill with a small dose and residual. Many factors determine the residual, but generally, the higher the ozone production, the higher the residual and the longer it will last in the water. Required residual is dictated by the amount and type of microbes to be killed. When ozone degrades, it reverts back to oxygen, thus it is safe and not a chemical hazard to people, equipment or the environment.



  • Achromobacter butyri NCI-9404
  • Aeromonas harveyi NC-2
  • Aeromonas salmonicida NC-1102
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bacillus cereus
  • B. coagulans
  • Bacillus globigii
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Bacillus megatherium sp.
  • Bacillus paratyphosus
  • B. prodigiosus
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • B. stearothermophilus
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • C. sporogenes
  • Clostridium tetoni
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Coliphage
  • Corynebacterium diphthriae
  • Eberthella typhosa
  • Endamoeba histolica
  • Escherichia coli
  • Escherichia coli
  • Flavorbacterium SP A-3
  • Leptospira canicola
  • Listeria
  • Micrococcus candidus
  • Micrococcus caseolyticus KM-15
  • Micrococcus spharaeroides
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Neisseria catarrhalis
  • Phytomonas tumefaciens
  • Proteus vulgaris
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Pseudomonas
  • fluorscens (bioflims)
  • Pseudomonas putida
  • Salmonella choleraesuis
  • Salmonella enteritidis
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • SalmonSalmonella typhimurium
  • Salmonella typhosa
  • Salmonella paratyphiSarcina lutea
  • Seratia marcescens
  • Shigella dysenteriae
  • Shigella flexnaria
  • Shigella paradysenteriae
  • Spirllum rubrum
  • Staphylococcus albus
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus ‘C’
  • Streptococcus faecalis
  • Streptococcus hemolyticus
  • Streptococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus salivarius
  • Streptococcus viridans
  • Torula rubra
  • Vibrio alginolyticus & angwillarum
  • Vibrio clolarae
  • Vibrio comma
  • Virrio ichthyodermis NC-407
  • V. parahaemolyticus ella typhosa
  • Salmonella paratyphiSarcina lutea
  • Seratia marcescens
  • Shigella dysenteriae
  • Shigella flexnaria
  • Shigella paradysenteriae
  • Spirllum rubrum
  • Staphylococcus albus
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus ‘C’
  • Streptococcus faecalis
  • Streptococcus hemolyticus
  • Streptococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus salivarius
  • Streptococcus viridans
  • Torula rubra
  • Vibrio alginolyticus & angwillarum
  • Vibrio clolarae
  • Vibrio comma
  • Virrio ichthyodermis NC-407
  • V. parahaemolyticus

Fungus & Molds Spores

  • Aspergillus candidus
  • Aspergillus flavus (yellowish-green)
  • Aspergillus glaucus (bluish-green)
  • Aspergillus niger (black)
  • Aspergillus terreus, saitoi & oryzac
  • Botrytis allii
  • Colletotrichum lagenarium
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • Grotrichum
  • Mucor recomosus A & B (white-gray)
  • Mucor piriformis
  • Oospora lactis (white)
  • Penicillium cyclopium
  • P. chrysogenum & citrinum
  • Penicillium digitatum (olive)
  • Penicillium glaucum
  • Penicillium expansum (olive)
  • Penicillium egyptiacum
  • Penicillium roqueforti (green)
  • Rhizopus nigricans (black)
  • Rhizopus stolonifer


  • Adenovirus (type 7a)
  • Bacteriophage (E.coli)
  • Coxackie A9, B3, & B5
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Echovirus 1, 5, 12, & 29
  • Encephalomyocarditis
  • Hepatitis A
  • HIV
  • GD V11 Virus
  • Onfectious hepatitis
  • Influenza
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Polio virus (Poliomyelitus) 1, 2 & 3
  • Rotavirus
  • Tobacco mosaic
  • Vesicular Stomatitis
  • COVID 19,SARS, H1N1 or similar Groups

Fungal Pathongens

  • Alternaria solani
  • Botrytis cinerea
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • Monilinia fruiticola
  • Monilinia laxa
  • Pythium ultimum
  • Phytophthora erythroseptica
  • Phytophthora parasitica
  • Rhizoctonia solani
  • Rhizopus stolonifera
  • Sclerotium rolfsii
  • Sclerotinia sclerotiorum


  • Baker’s yeast
  • Candida albicans-all forms
  • Common yeast cake
  • saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • saccharomyces ellipsoideus
  • saccharomyces sp.


  • Paramecium
  • Nematode eggs
  • Chlorella vulgaris (Algae)
  • All Pathogenic & Non-pathogenic


  • Chlorella vulgaris
  • Thamnidium
  • Trichoderma viride
  • Verticillium albo-atrum
  • Verticillium dahliae


  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Giardia muris


Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which electrons are LOST by atoms, ions or molecules. Reduction is the GAIN of electrons. Regardless of the name similarity, oxidation reactions need not actually involve oxygen atoms or molecules.

Oxidation, for non-chemists and those who have forgotten high school chemistry, is commonly just burning or rusting. If done instantaneously, it is an explosion. If done rapidly, it is burning. If done slowly, it is corrosion. When acting at a molecular level, it is just plain oxidation or part of the oxidation-reduction process. It can occur in gaseous or solid states as well as in liquids.

Oxidation potential of Ozone

Species FormulaOxidation Potential, (eV) Author Notes
FluorineF3.06 explosive in water
Hydroxyl Radical OH2.80 – very short half life (nano-seconds)
 – can be created using ozone, hydrogen peroxide & UV light
Nascent OxygenO2.42 – rapidly combines with itself to form O2, or combines with an O2 molecule to form O3
 – can be created via corona discharge & UV ozone generation
OzoneO32.07 – excellent oxidizer in water or air
 – reverts back to oxygen
 – ideal for chemical synthesis & ozonolysis reactions
Hydrogen PeroxideH2O21.77 liquid application only
Hypochlorous AcidHOCl1.49 – primary ingredient in toilet bowl cleaners
 – can give off toxic chlorine gas
ChlorineCl21.36 – very toxic & poisonous
 – disagreeable odor
Hypobromous AcidHOBr1.33 – considered a weak acid
 – unstable
Chlorine DioxideClO20.95 – used primarily for bleaching pulp wood

  Oxidation Potential otherwise referred to as redox potential, is the measurement of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons, and be reduced.  Oxidation Potential is measured as a voltage.  Greater oxidation potential indicates a greater tendency to be reduced, and thereby create an electron exchange with other chemical species. 

Ozone has one of the highest oxidation potentials, lower only than fluorine atom, oxygen atom, and hydroxyl radical.  Some of the reactions of ozone create the oxygen atom and hydroxyl radical to create an even higher oxidation potential than ozone alone.

Because of the high oxidation potential, the oxygen molecule has a high capacity to react with many compounds not easily oxidized by other chemicals.  This potential is especially important reactions with some inorganic species such as FE+2  and I-.  However, in many cases, there is no explicit electron transfer, but rather an oxygen transfer from the ozone molecule to the other compound. 

Example of ion exchange oxidation of ozone and iron:

Fe+2 + O3 = FE+3 + O3-

Example of oxygen atom exchange oxidation of ozone and iron:

2Fe2+ + O3 + H2 O → 2Fe3+ + O2 + 2OH-

Both reactions can occur with organic and inorganic compounds.  This is just one simple example of ozone oxidation reactions.